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      It all started with an idea to teach a machine to read or at least add multi-digit numbers. More about 1500 Leonardo da Vinci developed a sketch of the 13- bit adder. This was the first attempt to solve this problem. First actions car built in 1642 by French physicist and mathematician Blaise Pascal.
  After nearly two hundred and fifty years there was a widely used unit - adding machine that performs four arithmetic operations. Already in the beginning of the XIX century, the level of development of sciences and practice areas was so high that they require a huge amount of computing beyond human capabilities.   On the creation and improvement of appropriate technology worked as outstanding scientists and unknown inventors and engineers who devoted their lives to design computing devices. For example, in 1822 the English mathematician Charles Babbage designed and built nearly 30 years of a machine that was first named " Versatile " and later the "analytic". It is in " analytical " the car was based on the principles that have become fundamental to computing :
  • Automatic execution of operations - the need to surgery followed one after another incessantly, without " gaps " that require direct human intervention.
  • Work on input "on the fly " program - for automatic operations program must be introduced into the actuator at a rate commensurate with the speed of operations. Babbage proposed the use of punch cards with a pre- recorded program.
  • The need for special storage device - a block of memory, which Babbage called " warehouse ".
  All these ideas came to the impossibility of implementation due to mechanical basics of computing devices.
  First automatic operating computing devices appeared in the middle of the XX century. This became possible with electromechanical relays, along with the mechanical design. Work on relay machines were made until 1944 while under the supervision of Howard Aiken at IBM, was not running machine " Mark 1 ", first implemented the idea of ​​Babbage.
  First became current computer ENIAC, created under the direction of D. and P. Eckert Mouchli. ENIAC contained 18,000 vacuum tubes and a plurality of electromechanical components.
But these and many other of the first computers did not have the most important quality - not stored in the program memory machines, and were recruited by means of external switching devices. The first stored program computer EDSAC was built in the UK in 1949

   

01.10.2014

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